Gigsplained: Educational YouTube Channels

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Use the search feature on YouTube to add the channels to your kid’s YouTube. These are suggestions. Older kids may appreciate some of the content on channels that are good for younger kids.

Note: These are suggestions, of course. You will need to determine what is best for your child.

Good for Younger KidsFor Older Kids (Teens)
PBS KidsKyle Hill
StoriedNova PBS Official
PBS TerraPBS Spacetime
Be SmartSabine Hossenfelder
PBS EonsPBS Origins
American Experience

How Color Night Vision Works

Most cameras have infrared night vision, however, until now, the image at night has been black and white. Now, Gigabytes brings you the greatest technology in IP cameras since 4k video: full color night vision cameras.

There are a couple of ways to do color night vision. The first is to just light up the area with visible light all the time. This is traditionally how we have overcome the limitations of infrared illumination. Some cameras even have large floodlights built in to be able to illuminate the immediate area with visible light. This is a perfectly effective way to make color night vision a reality.

The modern way our solution works is to utilize AI to analyze the image for human and vehicle activity specifically and optionally turn on a small spot light to warn off any would-be perpetrators. Normally, a small light is not enough to effectively illuminate the area but when you couple it with a better low-light image sensor and the built-in AI, what you get is a full color picture in what is effectively total darkness.

It doesn’t require any special equipment (just the right camera) and all the image processing is done at the camera so what your recorder sees is a color picture from the camera. This allows you to better identify people and vehicles at night and recoup potential losses faster.

Could your security benefit from color night vision? Let us know and get 33% off your labor.

Is the Nintendo Wii a Retro Console?

How natural, planned, and forced obsolescence affect gamers like you.

Since the dawn of consumer electronics, there has existed a sort of natural life cycle of electronic goods driven almost exclusively by the consumer market. The life cycle looks like this:

  1. Debut – The product is introduced.
  2. Discount – The product is discounted but still sold in stores.
  3. Discontinuation – The product is discontinued and begins showing up on the used market.
  4. Devaluation – The product is considered of little or no value on the used market.
  5. Deity – The product is “resurrected” and becomes desirable again because of either rarity or community support.

When computers, video games, and media players relied exclusively on physical media to operate, electronics could be restored to their former glory to operate as they once did with no loss of function. Today’s electronics are increasingly more and more dependent on internet based services and less on physical media. This means consumers who want to play their old systems may not be able to in the future. Those who want to experience these systems after the manufacturers stop supporting the online component will never get to.

There is no better example of this than Nintendo. On January 31, 2019 Nintendo shut down the Wii Shop after a little over 12 years of service. The Wii U was introduced in November of 2012 and its store is due to be deactivated in March of 2023 after being in service for a little over 10 years. While these systems still have a wide selection of physical media to choose from, downloading new titles – even from third parties – is completely off the table.

The discontinuation of the Wii Shop means people who want to use the Wii would have to install community-supported things like the home brew channel to restore online functionality to the Wii.

While these systems are still largely dependent on physical media, the disabling of the digital store made the system far less useful and far less valuable on the used console market.

Is that why is Nintendo doing this? Though the argument could be made that Nintendo has an obligation to support its product as long as there are users, they are certainly under no obligation to support deprecated consoles in perpetuity. There is also a profit motive to force users to move to their newer products and supporting older systems could be a money-losing proposition.

However, Sony disagrees. After many complaints from users, Sony has committed to supporting its users by taking steps to ensure functionality on the PlayStation 3 well into the future.

That begs the question of whether Nintendo has the kind of committed user base Sony does. Was it strictly a numbers calculation to close the store? Did the user base fall to a point that it no longer made sense to support these systems? If any of this is true, this is a classic example of forced obsolescence where a company makes a decision to discontinue a product or product support based on market or outside forces.

A prime example of this is Microsoft and Windows XP. Windows XP was such a widely used piece of software that millions of devices relied on it to function. As Microsoft didn’t have a suitable replacement at the time they wanted to discontinue XP they pushed the service end date back several times. To date, in 2022, some embedded versions of Windows XP are still supported by Microsoft even as their consumer and business desktop versions have seen their support discontinued.

Forced obsolescence is different from the more familiar term: planned obsolescence. Instead of making the decision based on market forces or other outside factors, planned obsolescence is on the product roadmap from the beginning. As the name suggests, the product discontinuation is planned.

If this was a case of planned obsolescence, one needs to examine why Nintendo is reducing the support interval for these services from product to product in a time when digital purchases are the rule rather than the exception.

Ultimately, it really doesn’t matter whether Nintendo was forced or planned the Wii Shop support discontinuation. It is just as much about control over their product as it is anything else.

So has Nintendo upended the natural obsolescence cycle? Natural obsolescence has a timeline that those who grew up in the last millennium are all too familiar with.

Take the Commodore 64, a personal computer released in 1982 for $595. Competition soon drove the price down to $250 by early 1983. By the late 80’s, as the Commodore 64 was replaced by the Commodore 128 and then the Amiga, the once popular Commodore 64 computers were now starting a new life on the used market. By the time Commodore ceased production in 1993, demand for the systems cratered and they could be had for pennies on the dollar.

During its life, there was an active community of enthusiasts and hobbyists that continued to support the Commodore 64. Similar communities surround most old electronics. In the last 10 years, the community has grown as people become nostalgic for systems they used in their youth. This increases demand for surviving systems and drives the price up. Other parties see the market potential and replicate systems built with new technology. Despite having over 17 million units on the planet at one point in time, the systems will eventually begin to fail and become rare, driving the price to a premium despite the grassroots preservation efforts.

We are not quite at the final stage where the Commodore 64 is a rare piece but they are getting harder and more expensive to obtain.

This happens at a different pace for different systems in different places. The Atari 2600, for example, are easy and cheap to get a hold of despite being just as beloved and even older than the Commodore 64. The Atari is in the same developmental phase as the Commodore with clones and community support, however, in the natural obsolescence timeline, given the inexpensive price of the systems, one would not be blamed for thinking that it seems to be stuck in the devaluation phase.

So, where is the Wii on this scale? The system has been deprecated and is not an in-demand system currently. They can be found, in abundance, in nearly every pawn and thrift store for a fraction of the new price. In fact, a Wii can be had for about the same price as an Atari. It seems to be in about the same place the Commodore was in the 90’s and 2000’s.

The Commodore 64 and Atari 2600 has something that the Wii does not: nostalgia. There is no widespread nostalgia for these systems and, therefore, no widespread demand for these systems. The Wii is firmly in the devaluation phase and in that regard, Nintendo doesn’t seem to have disrupted natural obsolescence at all. Yet.

How long it will remain in this phase remains to be seen. It will all be up to hobbyists and the home brew community to find a higher purpose that could elevate it to desirability again.

What does this mean for the average gamer? Natural obsolescence is driven exclusively by the consumer. It ebbs and flows with supply and demand from the users themselves. The more scary prospect is the planned and forced obsolescence that Nintendo in particular seem to be driving toward. With digital purchases and online accounts relying on revocable support from manufacturers, there could be a day – very soon – that your beloved gaming system will be come a very expensive paper weight.

PETSCII Robots INNEXT SNES Controller on The C64 Mini


How to play PETSCII Robots on The C64 Mini without a keyboard using an INNEXT SNES joypad.

  1. Open up your favorite text editor.
  2. Enter the following: J:2*:I,K,J,L,Z,M,W,A,Z,S,D,SP,M
  3. Save the file as THEC64-default.cjm in the folder your PETSCII Robots game is located exactly as you see it (capitalization counts).

NOTE you will still need the keyboard for some things (F1 to cycle weapons and F3 to cycle items) but the majority of the controls will be moved to the joypad.

The file also can be found here to download.

Commodore C64 Retro Gaming Resources

So, you got a Commodore 64 or bought a C64 Mini and don’t know what to do with it? This list is not comprehensive, but it should get you started. For simplicity sake, we have linked directly to the site or store itself. Websites are dynamic, however, and the links could change. Let us know if that happens.

We are reasonably certain that the links provided are not only safe, but more or less legitimate sources as well. However, we cannot make any sort of guarantee to that.

*Important! PLEASE NOTE: Downloading copyrighted materials is illegal in most countries. Do so at your own risk. Be sure to know and follow the laws in your area before downloading any such material. 

The C64 MiniHome of The C64 Mini
Individual ComputersHome of the C64 Reloaded
TFW8BThe Future Was 8 Bit
Ultimate 64Home of the Ultimate 64 board
Retro InnovationsHome of hardware mods for C64
Pixel WizardHome of new C64C style cases. 
Commodore4everAccessories for Commodore machines
CBMStuff.comA Variety of C64 Hardware
COREi643D Printed Commodore parts
Restore StoreMore Hardware (in German)
idoregesz.huUnique hardware from Hungary
64K64K YouTube Channel hosted by BastichB
Morgan Just GamesC64 longplays and info hosted by Jamie Morgan
Commodore4EverCommodore4Ever Channel
Jan BetaDetailed retro repairs hosted by Jan Beta
The 8-Bit GuyCommodore and retro hosted by David Murray
Perifractic C64C64 videos from Perifractic’s Retro Recipies
MsMadLemon C64C64 Videos from MsMadLemon
SIDspieler.deSID Music Site (German)
C64 RadioC64 SID Tunes Radio
Chicken HeadThe Chicken Head Chronicles Commodore 8 bit
Software (ROMs, disk image, and abandonware)
C64.comSite dedicated to preserving C64 software.
My AbandonwareMassive abandonware site
Games That Weren’tGames that Weren’t abandonware and recovery.
Gurce.netSite of C64 Mini Wiki and some game packs
C64 SceneThe C64 Scene Database
GEOSGEOS Software and docs
Commodore.softwareCommodore Utilities and Software
C64 GamesC64 Games site. (German)
Software NEW
ProtovisionDeveloper of current C64 Games
RetroGamerCDDeveloper of New C64 Games
Poly.Play New Hardware and Software 
C64OSC64 OS Project
8bitguyHome of Planet X2 and other software
PsytronicDownloadable C64 and other Commodore games
RetroZoneBoxed versions of Psytronic Software
VICEVICE multi-system Commodore emulator
Combian 64Raspberry Pi Quick boot VICE emulator
Books, Reference, and Documentation
Archive.orgCommodore 64 Book Archive.
SharewarePLUSC64 Hardware Blog
C64 Mini ZoneC64 Mini reference site with useful tools
GameBase64C64 Games Database
Lemon64Large Forum for Everything Commodore
C64 WikiThe Commodore 64 Wiki
Zzap! 64Zzap! 64 Magazine and archive
Reset 64Reset Magazine
Commodore FreeCommodore Free Magazine
C64 BlastC64 Blast Magazine
Other Sites
C64 RegistryCommodore Serial Number Registration
Breadbox64C64 Blog
Commodore BBSCommodore Bulletin Board Service Outpost 
The C64 CommunityThe C64 (Mini) User board
C64 Fan AppWeb based C64  aggregator. (Login Required)

Gigabytes Technology LLC is providing this information free of charge or obligation. We were not paid or compensated for providing these links.


The C64 Mini Adding Flags to Image Files

The C64 Mini can set all kinds of settings through the use of .CJM files, however, what if you just have a single problematic game and don’t really want to configure a whole .CJM file? There is a older method that works with the mini called Flag Configuration.

How it works: At its most basic, it is simply renaming a file and adding an underscore (_) and a two capital letter tag to the end of the file name.

Example: Jupiter-lander.d64 —> Jupiter-lander_J1.d64

The above example tells the mini that this file is a joystick port 1 game.

SIDE NOTE: The ports on the Commodore had to be addressed directly from code so some games used joystick port 1 and most others used joystick port 2.

Commodore 64 joystick control ports.

You can add any number of flags in any order to the end of the file. It should be noted that if your game has underscores in the name, you may have to remove those as well for this to work.

Example: The Jupiter Lander file is a PAL joystick 1 image you want to run on an NTSC system. It doesn’t load properly so you want to turn the cycle accurate disk reader on (use Accurate Disk Drive Mode).

Jupiter-lander.d64 —> Jupiter-lander_TPJ1AD.d64

Flag Key

J1This sets the primary joystick port as port 1. With a second Joystick connected, it automatically uses port 2.Use this flag if you cannot use a joystick with a game you know should work with one.
J2This sets the primary joystick port as port 2. With a second Joystick connected, it automatically uses port 1.Port 2 is the default for the Mini so it does not need to be set.
ADStands for “Accurate Disk”. Turns on the cycle exact disk reader on the Mini.Use this if your game is unstable when you try to run it.
ROThis makes the disk image read-only. This is mainly for protection, however, some games did check this for copy protection.
NI“No Indicator” turns off the drive access indicator.Mainly a user preference thing.
TNTells a PAL (European) system that the disk image is NTSC (Japan and North America).Use if you are running a PAL system with an NTSC image or the game play seems too slow.
TPTells an NTSC (Japan and North America) system that the disk image is PAL (European).Use if you are running a NTSC system with an PAL image or the game play seems too fast.

This information is found in more detail here under Appendix A.

Technical Note: “Accurate Disk” does slow the loading of games down, however, it does not turn off the “fast loader” on the C64 Mini. Before loading your ROM or disk image, press the third button on the C64 Mini to turn off Fast Load.

C64 Mini CJM files Reference

The C64 Mini is a fun and useful machine for those wanting to relive the experience of the Commodore 64. However, the C64 Mini uses emulation to run games. This means it behaves differently than a full-fledged Commodore 64 and, as a result, games designed for the system do not always behave the same way they would when running on original equipment.

The way they found to get around a lot of these issues was the .CJM file. This is a simple text file that, when formatted properly, will tell the Mini how to operate with certain games. 

There is a tool to help you do this here that automates a lot of the process. This site also has pre-configured CJM files to download.

While it is not necessary to write the configuration file yourself, it should be well documented in the event that this tool no longer is available. Let’s start by taking a look at an existing .CJM file.


NOTE: You will need to name the file EXACTLY the same name as the image file. (Ex. Jupiter_Lander.d64 –> Jupiter_Lander.cjm)

X: System options
Each one of these is either on or off. Remove the option to disable. NOTE: These X: values are case sensitive and must be in all lower case.

ntsc: This is the video display type the game requires. Options are: ntsc or pal. Remove to use the default (native) display.
accuratedisk: This turns off the cycle exact floppy emulation in the mini. Use this option if the game hangs or crashes while loading.
Note: Accurate Disk does slow down loading but it does not control the Mini’s fast loader. To disable that, press the third button (C) on the Mini Joystick before loading your ROM or disk image. 
Marks the disk image read-only. Required for some disk images and copy protection.
driveicon: Displays a drive icon while the image is being accessed.

J: Joystick Mapping
Each one of these options is required – even if the joystick doesn’t have a button for the function.

Input TypeNumberDefaultUpDownLeftRightFire LeftFire RightTriangle L / XTriangle R / YTriangle R / Shoulder LA/BB/AC / SelectTriangle L / Shoulder RController Brand
JoystickMini in port 22nd is defaultJoy UpJoy DownJoy LeftJoy RightJoy FireJoy FireRun/StopSpaceSpaceRun/StopF1F7Run/Stop 


JUJoystick Up
JDJoystick Down
JLJoystick Left
JRJoystick Right
JFJoystick Fire
CUCursor Up
CDCursor Down
CLCursor Left
CRCursor Right
SLShift Left
SRShift Right
PO£ (pound)
SSShift Lock
AUArrow Up
ALArrow Left
CMC= key

V: Vertical Video Offset
This is simply a positive or negative integer to move the video up or down.

This should give you enough info to remap joystick and set system options. 

Example 1: You have a PAL game that is not designed for a joystick but instead uses WASD and the Right Shift for joystick control.


Example 2: You want to turn on the access indicator and map the second joystick button to Space on the second joystick and make it default.


Using The File

Place the file in the same folder as your game. The mini looks for the .CJM file automatically. 

Applying to Multiple Games

You can apply the file to multiple games in a folder by renaming the file to THEC64-default.cjm

This information is found in more detail here under Appendix A.

Reset Samsung DVR to Factory

I recently had a customer ask me to reset a Samsung DVR. Of course,  I first checked to see if there was a hardware switch to reset it. There wasn’t.

Googling the reset procedure, I discovered all of the resets for Samsung DVRs were pressing a combination of buttons on the front of the machine or remote. My machine had no buttons and none of the combination of buttons worked.

I did find a YouTube video that had a 7th combination of buttons that did work. This combination should work for SDR-3300N or the SDR-3040N and perhaps a few others.

On the remote, press:


in quick succession. I was able to get it on the first attempt. It will prompt you to reset to factory which you select OK.

Special thanks to 4k Vlogs for the info.

Link to the video: